The Toyota 1KD-FTV is a 3.0 L (2,982 cc, 182 cu·in) four-cylinders, four-stroke cycle water-cooled turbocharged internal combustion diesel engine, manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation.
The Toyota 1KD-FTV engine has a cast-iron block with 96.0 mm (3.78 in) cylinder bores and a 103.0 mm (4.06 in) piston stroke for a capacity of 2,982 cc (182 cu·in). Compression ratio rating is 15.0-17.9:1. The motor used an aluminum cylinder head with a dual overhead camshaft (DOHC) with 16 valves (4 per cylinder).
The 1KD-FTV is equipped with “Direct Injection 4-Stroke Common Rail Diesel Engine” (D-4D), Variable nozzle turbocharger (VNT) CT16V with Intercooler and ERG system.
The Toyota 1KD-FTV produced from 136 PS (100 kW; 134 HP) at 3,400 rpm to 190 PS (140 kW; 188 HP) at 3,400 rpm of maximum horsepower and from 300 N·m (30.6 kg·m, 221.1 ft·lb) at 2,400 rpm to 420 N·m (42.8 kg·m, 309.5 ft·lb) at 4,000 rpm of peak torque.
The breakdown of the engine code is as follows:
- 1 – 1st generation engine
- KD – Engine family
- F – Economy narrow-angle DOHC
- T – Turbocharged
- V – D-4D Common rail direct injection system (diesel)
|Displacement||3.0 L, 2,982 cm2, (182 cu·in)|
|Fuel system||Direct Injection 4-Stroke Common Rail Diesel Engine|
|Power adder||Variable nozzle turbocharger (VNT) CT16V|
From 136 PS (100 kW; 134 HP) at 3,400 rpm
to 190 PS (140 kW; 188 HP) at 3,400 rpm
From 300 N·m (30.6 kg·m, 221.1 ft·lb) at 2,400 rpm
to 420 N·m (42.8 kg·m, 309.5 ft·lb) at 4,000 rpm
|Dimensions (L x H x W):||–|
The 1KD-FTV engine used a deep-skirt cast iron cylinder block with 96.0 mm (3.78 in) of the cylinder bore and a 103.0 mm (4.06 in) of the piston stroke. Compression ratio rating is 15.0:1, 16.0:1 or 17.9:1.
The crankshaft has eight balance weights and five journals, while the pin and journal fillets are roll-finished. To reduce noise, vibration, and harshness, the crankshaft pulley is equipped with a torsional rubber damper. The 1KD-FTV engine used two counter-rotating balance shafts that are driven by the crankshaft timing gear.
The 1KD-FTV engine has aluminum alloy pistons with resin-coated skirts. Each piston is fitted with two compression rings and a single oil ring.
|Cylinder block alloy||Cast-iron|
|Compression ratio:||15.0:1, 16.0:1 or 17.9:1|
|Cylinder bore:||96.0 mm (3.78 in)|
|Piston stroke:||103.0 mm (4.06 in)|
|Number of piston rings (compression / oil):||2 / 1|
|Number of main bearings:||5|
|Cylinder bore inner diameter:||96.000-96.010 mm (3.7795-3.7799 in)|
|Piston skirt diameter||95.920-95.930 mm (3.7764-3.7768 in)|
|Piston ring side clearance :||Top||0.091-0.135 mm (0.0036-0.0053 in)|
|Second||0.090-0.130 mm (0.0035-0.0051 in)|
|Oil||0.030-0.070 mm (0.0012-0.0028 in)|
|Piston ring end gap:||First||0.270-0.390 mm (0.0106-0.0154 in)|
|Second||0.470-0.570 mm (0.0185-0.0224 in)|
|Oil||0.200-0.400 mm (0.0079-0.0157 in)|
|Piston pin outer diameter||33.996-34.008 mm (1.3384-1.3389 in)|
|Connecting rod small end diameter (standard)||34.012-34.024 mm (1.3391-1.3395 in)|
|Crankshaft main journal diameter:||69.994-70.000 mm (2.7557-2.7559 in)|
|Crankpin diameter:||58.994-59.000 mm (2.3226-2.3228 in)|
|Crankshaft center distance:||51.5 mm (2.03 in)|
Main bearing cap tightening procedure and torque specs:
- Step 1: 50 Nm; 5.1 kg·m; 37 ft·lb
- Step 2: Turn all bolts 90°
After securing bearing cap bolts, make sure crankshaft turns smoothly by hand.
Connecting rod bearing nut
- Step 1: 35 Nm; 3.6 kg·m; 26 ft·lb
- Step 2: Turn all bolts 90°
Crankshaft pulley bolt
- 365 Nm; 37.0 kg·m; 268 ft·lb
Flywheel (M/T) fixing bolts
- 145 Nm; 14.8 kg·m; 107 ft·lb
Drive plate (A/T) fixing bolts
- 178 Nm; 18.2 kg·m; 131 ft·lb
The 1KD-FTV has a one-piece high-strength aluminum cylinder head, double overhead camshaft (DOHC). The cylinder head is mounted on a steel-laminate type head gasket by the plastic region tightening bolts. To reduce mass and noise, the 1KD-FTV engine used a plastic cylinder head cover.
The intake camshaft is driven by a timing belt, and the intake camshaft drives the exhaust camshaft by a gear. The 1KD-FTV engine has four valves per cylinder: two intakes and two exhaust (16 in total). Valves are actuated directly by shim-less valve lifters that provided a large cam contact surface. Intake valve head diameter is 32.2 mm (1.2677 in), intake duration is 219°, and the exhaust valve head is 27.8 mm (1.0945 in), exhaust duration is 225°. Adjustment of valve clearance required the valve lifters to be replaced.
|Cylinder head alloy||Aluminum|
|Valves:||16 (4 valves per cylinder)|
|Intake valves diameter:||32.2 mm (1.2677 in)|
|Exhaust valves diameter:||27.8 mm (1.0945 in)|
|Intake valves length:||105.15-105.75 mm (4.1398-4.1634 in)|
|Exhaust valves length:||105.02-105.62 mm (4.1346-4.1583 in)|
|Intake valve stem diameter:||5.970-5.985 mm (0.235-0.2356 in)|
|Exhaust valves stem diameter:||5.960-5.975 mm (0.2346-0.2352 in)|
|Camshaft journal diameter:||27.969-27.985 mm (1.1011-1.1018 in)|
|Intake cam lobe height:||47.180-47.280 mm (1.8575-1.8614 in)|
|Exhaust cam lobe height:||48.070-48.170 mm (1.8925-1.8965 in)|
Head tightening procedure and torque specs:
- Step 1: 85 Nm; 8.7 kg·m; 63 ft·lb
- Step 2: Turn all bolts 90°
- Step 3: Turn all bolts 90°
Camshaft bearing cap
- 19 Nm; 1.94 kg·m; 14 ft·lb
|Valve clearance (Cold)|
|Intake valve||0.20-0.30 mm (0.0079-0.0118 in)|
|Exhaust valve||0.35-0.45 mm (0.0138-0.0177 in)|
|Standard||27.5 kg/m2 (2,700 kPa, 391 psi) / 250 rpm|
|Minimun||22.5 kg/m2 (2,200 kPa, 320 psi) / 250 rpm|
|Compression differential limit between cylinders||5.0 kg/m2 (500 kPa, 71 psi) / 250 rpm|
|Oil type:||API CF-4 or CF, CE, CD|
|Recommended engine oil||SAE 10W-30, 5W-30, 15W-40, 20W-50|
|Engine oil capacity||
Dry fill: 8.0 L (8.5 US qt, 7.0 Imp. qt)
With oil filter change: 7.5 L (7.9 US qt, 6.6 Imp. qt)
Without oil filter change: 6.8 L (7.2 US qt, 6.0 Imp. qt)
|Engine oil pressure||
At idle speed: 29 kPa (0.3 kg/cm2, 4.2 psi)
At 4,500 rpm: 245 kPa (2.5 kg/cm2, 36 psi)
|Max engine speed under no load||4,500-4,700 rpm|
|Turbocharging pressure||2.1 kgf/cm2 (205 kPa, 15.6 psi)|
|Step motor rod stroke||11±0.03 mm (0.43±0.012 in)|
|Toyota Land Cruiser Prado (90, 120, 150)||–|
|Toyota 4Runner / Hilux Surf (180, 210)||–|
|Toyota Hilux Surf (KDN 185, 215)||–|
|Toyota Toyo Ace (KDY 200)||–|
|Toyota Regius Ace||–|
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