Toyota 1HD-FT

Toyota 1HD-FTThe Toyota 1HD-FT is a 4.20 l (4,164 cc, 254.1 cu-in) six cylinders, four-stroke cycle water-cooled turbocharged internal combustion diesel engine, manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation.

The Toyota 1HD-FT most known for its use in the Toyota Land Cruiser HDJ80. The 1HD-FT engine has a cast-iron block with 94.0 mm (3.7 in) cylinder bores and a 100.0 mm (3.94 in) piston stroke for a capacity of 4,164 cc (254.1 cu-in). Compression ratio rating is 18.6:1.

The motor has a cast iron cylinder head with a single overhead camshaft (SOHC) which is mounted on a three-layer steel laminate type head gasket.

The 1HD-FT engine is equipped with mechanical rotary fuel injection pump; central vertically mounted injectors and Toyota CT26 turbocharger with a boost pressure of 0.62 bar. The Toyota 1HD-FT produced 170 PS (125 kW; 167 HP) at 3,600 rpm of horsepower and 380 Nm (38.76 kg·m; 280.44 ft·lb) at 2,500 rpm of torque.

The breakdown of the engine code is as follows:

  • 1 – 1nd generation engine
  • HD – Engine family
  • F – Economy narrow-angle
  • T – Turbocharged

General information

Engine Specifications
Engine code1HD-FT
LayoutStraight-6, vertical
Fuel typeDiesel
Displacement4.2L, 4,164 cc (254.1 cu in)
Injection pumpMechanical
Power adderToyota CT26
Horsepower net170 PS (125 KW; 167 HP) at 3,600 rpm
Torque output380 Nm (38.76 kg·m; 280.44 ft·lb) at 2,500 rpm
Firing order1-4-2-6-3-5
Dimensions (L x H x W):

Cylinder block

The cylinder block has a monoblock high-strength cast-iron structure with the seven-bearing-support system. The 1HD-FT engine is equipped with a forged crankshaft with seven forged journals and twelve balance weights.

The 1HD-FT motor has carbon-steel connecting rods and an aluminum alloy piston for high strength, lightweight and good heat conductivity; two compression and one oil control rings. The cylinder bore is 94 mm (3.7 in), piston stroke is 100 mm (3.94 in) and compression ratio rating is 18.6:1.

Cylinder block
Cylinder block alloyCast iron
Compression ratio:18.6:1
Cylinder bore:94 mm (3.7 in)
Piston stroke:100 mm (3.94 in)
Number of piston rings (compression / oil):2 / 1
Number of main bearings:7
Cylinder bore inner diameter:94.000-94.010 mm (3.7001-3.7012 in)
Piston skirt diameter93.845-94.855 mm (3.8947-3.8951 in)
Piston ring groove:First0.050-0.095 mm (0.0020-0.0037 in)
Second0.060-0.100 mm (0.0024-0.0039 in)
Oil0.030-0.070 mm (0.0012-0.0028 in)
Piston ring end gap:First0.270-0.470 mm (0.0106-0.0185 in)
Second0.400-0.650 mm (0.0157-0.0256 in)
Oil0.200-0.500 mm (0.0079 – 0.0197 in)
Piston pin outer diameter33.000-33.012 mm (1.2992-1.2997 in)
Piston pin bore diameter33.008-33.020 mm (12.995-1.3000 in)
Crankshaft main journal diameter:66.994-67.000 mm (2.7953-2.7955 in)
Crankpin diameter:58.982-59.000 mm (2.3221-2.3228 in)
Crankshaft center distance:50.0 mm (1.9685 in)

Main bearing cap tightening procedure and torque specs:

12 pointed head:

  • Step 1: 103 Nm; 10.5 kg·m; 76 ft·lb
  • Step 2: Turn all bolts 90°

6 pointed head:

  • 18 Nm; 1.8 kg·m; 13 ft·lb

After securing bearing cap bolts, make sure crankshaft turns smoothly by hand.

Connecting rod bearing nut

  • Step 1: 37 Nm; 3.75 kg·m; 27 ft·lb
  • Step 2: Turn all bolts 90°

Crankshaft pulley bolt

  • 430 Nm; 44.0 kg·m; 317 ft·lb

Flywheel (M/T) or Drive plate (A/T) fixing bolts

  • 127 Nm; 13.0 kg·m; 94 ft·lb

Cylinder head

The 1HDFT has a one-piece high-strength cast iron cylinder head which is mounted on a three-layer steel laminate type head gasket. The engine has single (SOHC) high-quality carbon steel camshaft and aluminum rocker arms. Each rocker uses bridges to actuate a pair of valves. The engine does not have glow plugs but is equipped with an intake glow screen heater.

The camshaft is driven by a timing belt and gears. The timing gear train included a hydraulic auto tensioner. Furthermore, the timing gear train drove the oil pump, vacuum pump, steering gear pump, injection pump, and camshaft.

The engine has OHV design with four valves per cylinder: two intake and two exhaust valves, which are made of special heat-resistant steel. Intake valves are 33.0 mm (1.2992 in) in diameter, and the exhaust valves are 30.5 mm (1.2007 in). Intake duration is 224° and exhaust duration is 246°.

The 1HD-FT engine had an aluminum intake manifold and cast iron exhaust manifold that was mounted on a five-layer steel laminate type exhaust manifold gasket.

Cylinder head
Cylinder head alloyCast iron
Valve Arrangement:SOHC
Valves:24 (4 valves per cylinder)
Intake valves diameter:33.0 mm (1.2992 in)
Exhaust valves diameter:30.5 mm (1.2007 in)
Intake valves length:126.85-127.45 mm (4.9941-5.0177 in)
Exhaust valves length:126.43-127.03 mm (4.9775-5.0012 in)
Intake valve stem diameter:6.970-6.985 mm (0.2744-0.2750 in)
Exhaust valves stem diameter:6.960-6.975 mm (0.2740-0.2746 in.l
Camshaft journal diameter: 1st: 34.969-34.985 mm (1.3767-1.3774 in)
Others: 27.986-27.998 mm (1.1018-1.1023 in)
Intake cam lobe height:48.498-48.598 mm (1.9094-1.9133 in)
Exhaust cam lobe height:50.734-50.834 mm (1.9974-2.0013 in)

Head tightening procedure and torque specs:

  • Step 1: 69 Nm; 7.0 kg·m; 51 ft·lb
  • Step 2: Turn all bolts 90°
  • Step 3: Turn all bolts 90°

Camshaft bearing cap

  • 25 Nm; 2.5 kg·m; 18 ft·lb

Maintenance data

Valve clearance (Cold)
Intake valve0.17-0.23 mm (0.007-0.009 in)
Exhaust valve0.47-0.53 mm (0.019-0.021 in)
Compression pressure
Standard35.0 kg/m2 (3,432 kPa, 498 psi) / 250 rpm
Minimun25.0 kg/m2 (2,452 kPa, 358 psi) / 250 rpm
Compression differential limit between cylinders5.0 kg/m2 (490 kPa, 71 psi) / 250 rpm
Oil system
Recommended engine oilSemi Synthetic 10W-30 or 10W-40 (“CD” or higher: “CH”, “CI”)
Engine oil capacity Dry fill: 10.0 L (10.6 US qt, 8.8 Imp. qt)
With oil filter change: 9.7 L (10.3 US qt, 8.5 Imp. qt)
Without oil filter change: 8.4 L (8.9 US qt, 7.4 Imp. qt)
Fuel system
Plunger stroke: Europe: 1.52-1.58 mm (0.0598-0.0622 in.)
Australia: 1.37-1.43 mm (0.0539-0.0563 in.)
Idling M/T: 700 ± 50 rpm
A/T: 800 ± 50 rpm
Max engine speed under no load4400 ± 100 rpm

Vehicle applications

ModelYears Produced
Toyota Land Cruiser (HDJ80)1995-1999
Toyota Coaster (HDB50)1995-1999
Author: Sergei Wers
About: Co-founder and CEO of a multi-brand auto repair shop (engine repair, chassis repair, body repair and painting) for over 15 years. I have been developing internet sites with technical specifications for more than seven years.

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