Toyota 3L

Toyota 3LThe Toyota 3L is a 2.8 L (2,779 cc, 169.6 cu·in) four cylinders, four-stroke cycle water-cooled naturally aspirated internal combustion diesel engine, manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corporation.

The Toyota 3l diesel engine has a 96.0 mm (3.78 in) cylinder bore and 96.0 mm (3.78 in) piston stroke. Compression ratio rating is 22.2. The motor has a cast iron cylinder head with a single overhead camshaft (SOHC) with two valves per cylinder and indirect injection design.

The 3L engine produced 91 PS (67 kW; 90 HP) at 4,000 rpm of maximum horsepower and 188 N·m (19.2 kg·m, 138.6 ft·lb) at 2,400 rpm of maximum torque.

The breakdown of the engine code is as follows:

  • 3 – 3rd generation engine
  • L – Engine family

General information

Engine Specifications
Engine code3L
LayoutStraight-4, vertical
Fuel typeDiesel
Production
Displacement2.8 L, 2,776 cm3 (169.6 cu in)
Injection pumpMechanical
Power adderNone
Horsepower net 91 PS (67 kW; 90 HP) at 4,000 rpm
Torque output 188 N·m (19.2 kg·m, 138.6 ft·lb) at 2,400 rpm
Firing (injection) order1-3-4-2
Dimensions (L x H x W):
Weight

Cylinder block

The cylinder block is made of cast iron. The crankshaft is supported by five bearings on the inside of the crankcase. The crankshaft bearings are made of aluminum alloy. The crankshaft is integrated with balance weights which are cast along with it for balance.

The cylinder bore is 96.0 mm (3.78 in), piston stroke is 96.0 mm (3.78 in) and compression ratio rating is 22.2:1.

Cylinder block
Cylinder block alloyCast iron
Compression ratio:22.2:1
Cylinder bore:96.0 mm (3.78 in)
Piston stroke:96.0 mm (3.78 in)
Number of piston rings (compression / oil):2 / 1
Number of main bearings:5
Cylinder bore inner diameter:96.000-96.010 mm (3.7795-3.7799 in)
Piston skirt diameter95.940-95.950 mm (3.7772-3.7776 in)
Piston ring groove clearance:First0.028-0.077 mm (0.0011-0.0030 in)
Second0.060-0.105 mm (0.0024-0.0041 in)
Oil0.030-0.070 mm (0.0012-0.0028 in)
Piston ring end gap:First0.350-0.470 mm (0.0138-0.0185 in)
Second0.400-0.500 mm (0.0157-0.0197 in)
Oil0.200-0.500 mm (0.0079-0.0197 in)
Piston pin outer diameter29.000-29.012 mm (1.1417-1.1422 in)
Connecting rod small end diameter (standard)29.008-29.020 mm (1.142-1.1425 in)
Crankshaft main journal diameter:61.985-62.000 mm (2.4403-2.4409 in)
Crankpin diameter:52.988-53.000 mm (2.0861-2.0866 in)

Main bearing cap tightening procedure and torque specs:

  • 105 Nm; 10.5 kg·m; 77 ft·lb

After securing bearing cap bolts, make sure crankshaft turns smoothly by hand.

Connecting rod bearing nut

  • Step 1: 54 Nm; 5.5 kg·m; 40 ft·lb
  • Step 2: Turn all bolts 90°

Crankshaft pulley bolt

  • 235 Nm; 24.0 kg·m; 173 ft·lb

Flywheel

  • 123 Nm; 12.5 kg·m; 90 ft·lb

Cylinder head

Cylinder head
Cylinder head alloyCast iron
Valve Arrangement:SOHC
Valves:8 (2 valves per cylinder)
Intake valves diameter:
Exhaust valves diameter:
Intake valves length:103.29-103.69 mm (4.0665-4.0823 in)
Exhaust valves length:103.14-103.54 mm (4.0606-4.0764 in)
Intake valve stem diameter:7.975-7.990 mm (0.314-0.3146 in
Exhaust valves stem diameter:7.960-7.975 mm (0.3134-0.314 in)
Camshaft journal diameter: 1st: 34.969-34.985 mm (1.3767-1.3774 in)
Others: 27.969-27.985 mm (1.1011-1.1018 in)
Camshaft lobe height (intake):54.290-54.310 mm (2.1374-2.1382 in)
Camshaft lobe height (exhaust):54.990-55.010 mm (2.165-2.1657 in)

Head tightening procedure and torque specs:

  • Step 1: 78 Nm; 8.0 kg·m; 58 ft·lb
  • Step 2: Turn all bolts 90°
  • Step 3: Turn all bolts 90°

Camshaft bearing cap

  • 25 Nm; 2.5 kg·m; 18 ft·lb

Maintenance data

Valve clearance (Cold)
Intake valve0.20-0.30 mm (0.0079-0.0118 in)
Exhaust valve0.40-0.50 mm (0.0157-0.0197 in)
Compression pressure
Standard32.0 kg/m2 / 250 rpm
Minimun20.0 kg/m2 / 250 rpm
Compression differential limit between cylinders5.0 kg/m2 / 250 rpm
Oil system
Recommended engine oil10W-30 or 10W-40 (CF, CE or CD)
Engine oil capacity With oil filter change: 5.8-6.7 l (6.1-7.1 US qts, 5.1-5.9 Imp.qts)
Without oil filter change: 4.8-5.7 l (5.1-6.0 US qts, 4.2-5.0 Imp.qts),
depending on vehicle model
Fuel system
Nozzle opening pressure: New: 14,810-15,590 kPa (151-159 kg/cm2, 2,148-2,262 psi)
Reused: 14,220-15,200 kPa (145-155 kg/cm2, 2,062-2,205 psi)
Plunger stroke With ACSD: 0.44-0.56 mm (0.0173-0.0220 in.)
Without ACSD: 0.84-0.96 mm (0.0331-0.0378 in.)
Idling650 − 750 rpm

Vehicle applications

ModelYears Produced
Toyota Hilux
Toyota Hilux Surf
Toyota 4Runner
Toyota HiAce
Toyota Land Cruiser Prado (J70)
Toyota Land Cruiser Prado (J90)
Toyota Dyna 150
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