The Nissan GA16DE is a 1.6 liter (1,597 cc, 97.45 cu in) straight-four 4-stroke natural aspirated gasoline engine from Nissan GA-family. The GA16 engine was produced from 1990 through 1999 on Yokohama Plant (Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan).
The Nissan GA16DE engine has a cast-iron block and aluminum alloy cylinder head and multi-point fuel injection system. The GA16DE shares its cylinder block and crankshaft with its predecessor, the GA16i (throttle-body fuel-injected engine) but, timing chain covers, connecting rods and pistons are different.
Cylinder bore and piston stroke are 76.0 mm (2.99 in) and 88.0 mm (3.46 in), respectively. The compression ratio is 9.8:1 for Europe and Israel or 9.9:1 for other markets.
There are three versions of GA16DE:
- First-generation (1991-1994) This version for North-American market was equipped with NVTCS (Nissan Valve Timing Control System) on intake side and producted 110 PS (81 kW) at 6,000 rpm of horsepower and 146 Nm (14.8 kg⋅m, 110 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpm of torque.
- Second-generation (1995-1999) for North-American market was also equipped with NVTCS, but produces 115 PS (85 kW) at 6,000 rpm and 146 Nm (14.8 kg⋅m, 110 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpm
- European version without NVCS producted 100 PS (76 kW) at 6000 rpm and 127 Nm（13.0 kg⋅m, 94 lb·ft）at 3,600rpm
The breakdown of the engine code is as follows:
- GA – Engine Family
- 16 – 1.6 Liter Displacement
- D – DOHC (Dual Overhead Camshafts)
- E – Multi Point Fuel Injection
|Layout||Four stroke, Inline-4 (Straight-4)|
|Displacement||1.6 L, 1,597 cm3 (97.45 cu in)|
|Fuel system||Multi Point Fuel Injection|
100 PS (76 kW) at 6,000 rpm
110 PS (81 kW) at 6,000 rpm
115 PS (85 kW) at 6,000 rpm
120 PS (88 kW) at 6,400 rpm
127 Nm（13.0 kg⋅m, 94 lb·ft）at 3,600 rpm
145 Nm (14.8 kg⋅m, 110 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpm
|Dimensions (L x H x W):||–|
|Weight||330 lbs (150 kg)|
The GA16DE motor has a cast-iron cylinder block, cylinder bore is 76.0 mm (2.99 in) and the piston stroke is 88.0 mm (3.46 in). The pistons are each fitted with two compression rings and a single oil ring. For some markets, there was a modification with a single compression ring. The crankshaft for GA16DE supported by five main bearings. The crankshaft is the same as on the GA15DE engine.
|Cylinder block alloy||Cast iron|
|Compression ratio:||9.8:1 or 9.9:1|
|Cylinder bore:||76.0 mm (2.992 in)|
|Piston stroke:||88.0 mm (3.465 in)|
|Number of piston rings (compression / oil):||2 / 1 (1 / 1 – for some markets)|
|Number of main bearings:||5|
|Block Height:||213.95-214.05 mm (8.4232-8.4271 in)|
|Cylinder inner diameter (standard):||76.000-76,010 mm (2,9921-2.9925 in)|
|Piston skirt diameter (standard):||75.975-75.985 mm (29911-2.9915 in)|
|Piston pin outer diameter:||18.989-19.001 mm (0.7476-0.7481 in)|
|Piston ring side clearance:||Top||0.040-0.080 mm (0.0016-0.0031 in)|
|Second||0.030-0.070 mm (0.0012-0.0028 in)|
|Piston ring end gap:||Top||0.20-0.35 mm (0.0079-0.0138 in)|
|Second||0.37-0.52 mm (0.0146-0.0205 in)|
|Oil||0.20-0.60 mm (0.0079-0.0236 in)|
|Connecting rod center distance:||140.45-140.55 mm (5.5295-5.5335 in)|
|Connectin rod small end inner diameter:||19.000-19.012 mm (0.7480-0.7485 in)|
|Connectin rod big end inner diameter:||43.000-43.013 mm (1.6929-1.6934 in)|
|Crankshaft journal diameter:||49.956-49.964 mm (1.9668-1.9671 in)|
|Crankpin diameter:||39.968-39.974 mm (1.5735-1.5738 in)|
|Crankshaft center distance:||43.95-44.05 mm (1.7303-1.7342 in)|
The engine has an aluminum cylinder head with two chain-driven overhead camshafts and sixteen valves (four per cylinder). The GA16DE has two timing chains. Intake valves are 30 mm in diameter and the exhaust valves are 24 mm for engines without VTC system or 25 mm for the version with VTC. Exhaust duration is 222° for all versions, intake duration is 214° for engines without VTC; 236° for GA16GE with VTC system for Australian market and 248° for other markets.
The GA16DE does not have hydraulic lifters, so special shims are used to adjust the valve clearance.
|Cylinder head alloy||Aluminum|
|Cylinder head height:||118 mm (4.6456 in)|
|Valve Arrangement:||DOHC, chain drive|
214° without VTC;
236° with VTC system for Australian market;
248° with VTC system except Australian market;
|Valve head diameter:||INTAKE||29.9-30.2 mm (1.177-1.189 in)|
23.9-24.2 mm (0.941-0.949 in) – without VTC;
24.9-25.2 mm (0.980-0.992 in) – with VTC
|Valve length:||INTAKE||92.00-92.5 mm (3.6220-3.6417 in)|
|EXHAUST||92.37-92.87 mm (3.6366-3.6563 in)|
|Valve stem diameter:||INTAKE||5.465-5.480 mm (0.2152-0.2157 in)|
|EXHAUST||5.445-5.460 mm (0.2144-0.2150 in)||Cam height:||INTAKE||
39.380-39.570 mm (1.5504-1.5579 in) without VTC;
40.610-40.800 mm (1.5988-1.6063 in) with VTC except for Europe;
40.610-40.800 mm (1.5988-1.6063 in) with VTC for Australia;
39.880-40.070 mm (1.5701-1.5776 in) without VTC;
40.056-40.246 mm (1.5770-1.5845 in) with VTC except for Europe;
39.910-40.100 mm (1.5713-1,5787 in) with VTC for Australia;
|Outer camshaft journal diameter:||№1||27.935-27.955 mm (1.0998-1.1006 in)|
|№2-5||23.935-23.955 mm (0.9423 – 0.9431 in)|
Head tightening procedure and torque specs:
- Step 1: 29.4 Nm; 3.0 kg·m; 22 ft·lb
- Step 2: 58.8 Nm; 6.0 kg·m; 43 ft·lb
- Step 3: Loosen all bolts completely
- Step 4: 29.4 Nm; 3.0 kg·m; 22 ft·lb
- Step 5: Turn main bolts 50-55° or 58.8 Nm; 6.0 kg·m; 43 ft·lb
Problems and malfunctions
The Nissan GA16DE is reliable and durable. The engine has two timing chains, their service life is about 150,000 miles of mileage (200,000-250,000 km). The valve clearance needs to be adjusted every 30,000 miles of mileage (40,000-50,000 km). The GA16DE motor life expectancy is 200,000 miles of mileage (300,000 km) or more.
|Valve clearance (HOT)|
|Intake valve||0.21-0.49 mm (0.008-0.019 in)|
|Exhaust valve||0.30-0.58 mm (0.012-0.023 in)|
9.8: 13.8 kg/cm2 (13.53 bar, 196 psi) / 350 rpm
9.9: 14 kg/cm2 (13.7 bar, 199 psi) / 350 rpm
9.8: 11.8 kg/cm2 (11.57 bar, 168 psi) / 350 rpm
9.9: 12 kg/cm2 (11.8 bar, 171 psi) / 350 rpm
|Compression differential limit between cylinders||1 kg/cm2 (0.98 bar, 14 psi) / 350 rpm|
|Oil consumption , L/1000 km (qt. per miles)||up to 0.5 (1 qt. per 1200 miles)|
|Recommended engine oil||
|Oil type API||SE, SF, SG or SH|
|Engine oil capacity (Refill capacity)||
With filter change 3.2 l (3.4 qt.)
Without filter change 2.8 l (3.0 qt.)
|Oil change interval, km (miles)||15,000 (9,000)|
|Oil Pressure, kPa (bar, kg/cm 2, psi)||
Idle speed: More than 59 (0.59, 0.6, 9)
2,000 rpm: More than 245 (2.45, 2.5, 36)
6,000 rpm: More than 422 (4.22, 4.3, 61)
For Europe and Israel:
Cold: BKR6E, BKR7E
Except Europe and Israel:
Cold: BKR6E-11, BKR7E-11
|Spark plug gap||
For Europe and Israel:
0.8 – 0.9 mm (0.031 – 0.035 in)
Except Europe and Israel:
1.0 – 1.1 mm (0.039 – 0.043 in)
|Spark plug torque||19.6-29.4 Nm (2.00-3.00 kg⋅m, 14.3-21.7 lb·ft)|
Valve clearance adjustment data
Calculate the thickness of new adjusting shim so valve clearance comes within specified values.
R = Thickness of removed shim
N = Thickness of new shim
M = Measured valve clearance
N = R + [M – 0.37 mm (0.0146 in)]
N = R + [M – 0.40 mm (0.0157 in)]
Shims are available in 50 sizes from 2.00 mm (0.0787 in) to 2.98 mm (0.1173 in), in steps of 0.02 mm (0.0008 in).
Example (intake valve):
R = 2.10 mm
M = 0.52 mm
N = 2.10 + (0.52 – 0.37) = 2.25 mm, so we need a shim with code 225 or TS225.
|For adjusting||For checking|
|Intake||0.32-0.40 mm (0.013-0.016 in)||0.25-0.33 mm (0.010-0.013 in)||0.21-0.49 mm (0.008-0.019 in)|
|Exhaust||0.37-0.45 mm (0.015-0.018 in)||0.32-0.40 mm (0.013-0.016 in)||0.30-0.58 mm (0.012-0.023 in)|
*: At a temperature of approximately 20°C (68°F)
Whenever valve clearances are adjusted to cold specifications, check that the clearances satisfy hot specifications and adjust again if necessary.
|Nissan NX1600 B13||1993-1996|
|Nissan Sentra B13||1991-1994|
|Nissan 100NX B13||1994-1995 (UK)|
|Nissan Presea R10||1991-1994|
|Nissan Sentra B14||1995-1999|
|Nissan 200SX B14||1995-1999|
|Nissan Almera N15||1995-1999|
|Nissan Pulsar N14,N15||1990-1999|
|Nissan Primera P10,P11||1993-1999|
|Nissan Sunny Traveller N14||1992-1995|
|Nissan Wingroad Y10||1992-1995|
|Nissan Exalta (Philippines)||1999-2001|
|Nissan Vanette Serena / Serena C23||1991-1996|
|Nissan Lucino N15||1995-2000|
We try to use verified sources and official documentation, however, differences between sources or errors in entering information may occur. We do not provide advice on technical issues related to the engines operation or repair. We do not recommend using provided information for engines repairing engines or spare parts ordering, use only official service manuals and spare-parts catalogs.
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