Nissan GA16DE

Nissan GA16DE (1.6 L)The Nissan GA16DE is a 1.6 liter (1,597 cc, 97.45 cu in) straight-four 4-stroke natural aspirated gasoline engine from Nissan GA-family. The GA16 engine was produced from 1990 through 1999 on Yokohama Plant (Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan).

The Nissan GA16DE engine has a cast-iron block and aluminum alloy cylinder head and multi-point fuel injection system. The GA16DE shares its cylinder block and crankshaft with its predecessor, the GA16i (throttle-body fuel-injected engine) but, timing chain covers, connecting rods and pistons are different.

Cylinder bore and piston stroke are 76.0 mm (2.99 in) and 88.0 mm (3.46 in), respectively. The compression ratio is 9.8:1 for Europe and Israel or 9.9:1 for other markets.

There are three versions of GA16DE:

  • First-generation (1991-1994) This version for North-American market was equipped with NVTCS (Nissan Valve Timing Control System) on intake side and producted 110 PS (81 kW) at 6,000 rpm of horsepower and 146 Nm (14.8 kg⋅m, 110 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpm of torque.
  • Second-generation (1995-1999) for North-American market was also equipped with NVTCS, but produces 115 PS (85 kW) at 6,000 rpm and 146 Nm (14.8 kg⋅m, 110 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpm
  • European version without NVCS producted 100 PS (76 kW) at 6000 rpm and 127 Nm(13.0 kg⋅m, 94 lb·ft)at 3,600rpm

The breakdown of the engine code is as follows:

  • GA – Engine Family
  • 16 – 1.6 Liter Displacement
  • D – DOHC (Dual Overhead Camshafts)
  • E – Multi Point Fuel Injection

General information

Engine Specifications
Engine codeGA16DE
LayoutFour stroke, Inline-4 (Straight-4)
Fuel typeGasoline
Production1990-1999
Displacement1.6 L, 1,597 cm3 (97.45 cu in)
Fuel systemMulti Point Fuel Injection
Power adderNone
Power output 100 PS (76 kW) at 6,000 rpm
110 PS (81 kW) at 6,000 rpm
115 PS (85 kW) at 6,000 rpm
120 PS (88 kW) at 6,400 rpm
Torque output 127 Nm(13.0 kg⋅m, 94 lb·ft)at 3,600 rpm
145 Nm (14.8 kg⋅m, 110 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpm
Firing order1-3-4-2
Dimensions (L x H x W):
Weight330 lbs (150 kg)

Cylinder block

The GA16DE motor has a cast-iron cylinder block, cylinder bore is 76.0 mm (2.99 in) and the piston stroke is 88.0 mm (3.46 in). The pistons are each fitted with two compression rings and a single oil ring. For some markets, there was a modification with a single compression ring. The crankshaft for GA16DE supported by five main bearings. The crankshaft is the same as on the GA15DE engine.

Cylinder block
Cylinder block alloyCast iron
Compression ratio:9.8:1 or 9.9:1
Cylinder bore:76.0 mm (2.992 in)
Piston stroke:88.0 mm (3.465 in)
Number of piston rings (compression / oil):2 / 1 (1 / 1 – for some markets)
Number of main bearings:5
Block Height:213.95-214.05 mm (8.4232-8.4271 in)
Cylinder inner diameter (standard):76.000-76,010 mm (2,9921-2.9925 in)
Piston skirt diameter (standard):75.975-75.985 mm (29911-2.9915 in)
Piston pin outer diameter:18.989-19.001 mm (0.7476-0.7481 in)
Piston ring side clearance:Top0.040-0.080 mm (0.0016-0.0031 in)
Second0.030-0.070 mm (0.0012-0.0028 in)
Piston ring end gap:Top0.20-0.35 mm (0.0079-0.0138 in)
Second0.37-0.52 mm (0.0146-0.0205 in)
Oil0.20-0.60 mm (0.0079-0.0236 in)
Connecting rod center distance:140.45-140.55 mm (5.5295-5.5335 in)
Connectin rod small end inner diameter:19.000-19.012 mm (0.7480-0.7485 in)
Connectin rod big end inner diameter:43.000-43.013 mm (1.6929-1.6934 in)
Crankshaft journal diameter:49.956-49.964 mm (1.9668-1.9671 in)
Crankpin diameter:39.968-39.974 mm (1.5735-1.5738 in)
Crankshaft center distance:43.95-44.05 mm (1.7303-1.7342 in)

Cylinder head

The engine has an aluminum cylinder head with two chain-driven overhead camshafts and sixteen valves (four per cylinder). The GA16DE has two timing chains. Intake valves are 30 mm in diameter and the exhaust valves are 24 mm for engines without VTC system or 25 mm for the version with VTC. Exhaust duration is 222° for all versions, intake duration is 214° for engines without VTC; 236° for GA16GE with VTC system for Australian market and 248° for other markets.

The GA16DE does not have hydraulic lifters, so special shims are used to adjust the valve clearance.

Cylinder head
Cylinder head alloyAluminum
Cylinder head height:118 mm (4.6456 in)
Valve Arrangement:DOHC, chain drive
Intake duration:222°
Intake/Exhaust duration: 214° without VTC;
236° with VTC system for Australian market;
248° with VTC system except Australian market;
Valve head diameter:INTAKE29.9-30.2 mm (1.177-1.189 in)
EXHAUST 23.9-24.2 mm (0.941-0.949 in) – without VTC;
24.9-25.2 mm (0.980-0.992 in) – with VTC
Valve length:INTAKE92.00-92.5 mm (3.6220-3.6417 in)
EXHAUST92.37-92.87 mm (3.6366-3.6563 in)
Valve stem diameter:INTAKE5.465-5.480 mm (0.2152-0.2157 in)
EXHAUST5.445-5.460 mm (0.2144-0.2150 in)
Cam height:INTAKE 39.380-39.570 mm (1.5504-1.5579 in) without VTC;
40.610-40.800 mm (1.5988-1.6063 in) with VTC except for Europe;
40.610-40.800 mm (1.5988-1.6063 in) with VTC for Australia;
EXHAUST 39.880-40.070 mm (1.5701-1.5776 in) without VTC;
40.056-40.246 mm (1.5770-1.5845 in) with VTC except for Europe;
39.910-40.100 mm (1.5713-1,5787 in) with VTC for Australia;
Outer camshaft journal diameter:№127.935-27.955 mm (1.0998-1.1006 in)
№2-523.935-23.955 mm (0.9423 – 0.9431 in)

Head tightening procedure and torque specs:

  • Step 1: 29.4 Nm; 3.0 kg·m; 22 ft·lb
  • Step 2: 58.8 Nm; 6.0 kg·m; 43 ft·lb
  • Step 3: Loosen all bolts completely
  • Step 4: 29.4 Nm; 3.0 kg·m; 22 ft·lb
  • Step 5: Turn main bolts 50-55° or 58.8 Nm; 6.0 kg·m; 43 ft·lb

Problems and malfunctions

The Nissan GA16DE is reliable and durable. The engine has two timing chains, their service life is about 150,000 miles of mileage (200,000-250,000 km). The valve clearance needs to be adjusted every 30,000 miles of mileage (40,000-50,000 km). The GA16DE motor life expectancy is 200,000 miles of mileage (300,000 km) or more.

Maintenance data

Valve clearance (HOT)
Intake valve0.21-0.49 mm (0.008-0.019 in)
Exhaust valve0.30-0.58 mm (0.012-0.023 in)
Compression pressure
Standard 9.8: 13.8 kg/cm2 (13.53 bar, 196 psi) / 350 rpm
9.9: 14 kg/cm2 (13.7 bar, 199 psi) / 350 rpm
Minimun 9.8: 11.8 kg/cm2 (11.57 bar, 168 psi) / 350 rpm
9.9: 12 kg/cm2 (11.8 bar, 171 psi) / 350 rpm
Compression differential limit between cylinders1 kg/cm2 (0.98 bar, 14 psi) / 350 rpm
Oil system
Oil consumption , L/1000 km (qt. per miles)up to 0.5 (1 qt. per 1200 miles)
Recommended engine oil 5W-30
5W-40
10W-30
10W-40
Oil type APISE, SF, SG or SH
Engine oil capacity (Refill capacity) With filter change 3.2 l (3.4 qt.)
Without filter change 2.8 l (3.0 qt.)
Oil change interval, km (miles)15,000 (9,000)
Oil Pressure, kPa (bar, kg/cm 2, psi) Idle speed: More than 59 (0.59, 0.6, 9)
2,000 rpm: More than 245 (2.45, 2.5, 36)
6,000 rpm: More than 422 (4.22, 4.3, 61)
Ignition system
Spark plug For Europe and Israel:
Standard: BKR5E
Cold: BKR6E, BKR7E
Except Europe and Israel:
Standard: BKR5E-11
Cold: BKR6E-11, BKR7E-11
Spark plug gap For Europe and Israel:
0.8 – 0.9 mm (0.031 – 0.035 in)
Except Europe and Israel:
1.0 – 1.1 mm (0.039 – 0.043 in)
Spark plug torque19.6-29.4 Nm (2.00-3.00 kg⋅m, 14.3-21.7 lb·ft)

Valve clearance adjustment data

Calculate the thickness of new adjusting shim so valve clearance comes within specified values.

R = Thickness of removed shim
N = Thickness of new shim
M = Measured valve clearance

Intake:
N = R + [M – 0.37 mm (0.0146 in)]
Exhaust:
N = R + [M – 0.40 mm (0.0157 in)]

Shims are available in 50 sizes from 2.00 mm (0.0787 in) to 2.98 mm (0.1173 in), in steps of 0.02 mm (0.0008 in).

Example (intake valve):
R = 2.10 mm
M = 0.52 mm
N = 2.10 + (0.52 – 0.37) = 2.25 mm, so we need a shim with code 225 or TS225.

For adjustingFor checking
HotCold*Hot
Intake0.32-0.40 mm (0.013-0.016 in)0.25-0.33 mm (0.010-0.013 in)0.21-0.49 mm (0.008-0.019 in)
Exhaust0.37-0.45 mm (0.015-0.018 in)0.32-0.40 mm (0.013-0.016 in)0.30-0.58 mm (0.012-0.023 in)

*: At a temperature of approximately 20°C (68°F)

Whenever valve clearances are adjusted to cold specifications, check that the clearances satisfy hot specifications and adjust again if necessary.

Vehicle applications

ModelYears Produced
Nissan NX1600 B131993-1996
Nissan Sentra B131991-1994
Nissan 100NX B131994-1995 (UK)
Nissan Presea R101991-1994
Nissan Sentra B141995-1999
Nissan 200SX B141995-1999
Nissan Almera N151995-1999
Nissan Pulsar N14,N151990-1999
Nissan Primera P10,P111993-1999
Nissan Sunny Traveller N141992-1995
Nissan Wingroad Y10 1992-1995
Nissan Exalta (Philippines)1999-2001
Nissan Vanette Serena / Serena C231991-1996
Nissan Lucino N15 1995-2000
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6 Comments

  1. Hi,
    My GA16de has been giving me issues for a while now. I want to get a new engine, there are no GA16de engines available in or market. What are the alternative replacements for this engines with minimal modifications?

    Your avdvice would be of great help.

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