Nissan GA16DE

Nissan GA16DE (1.6 L)The Nissan GA16DE is a 1.6 liter (1,597 cc, 97.45 cu in) straight-four 4-stroke natural aspirated gasoline engine from Nissan GA-family. The GA16 engine was produced from 1990 through 1999 on Yokohama Plant (Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan).

The Nissan GA16DE engine has a cast-iron block and aluminum alloy cylinder head and multi-point fuel injection system. The GA16DE shares its cylinder block and crankshaft with its predecessor, the GA16i (throttle-body fuel-injected engine) but, timing chain covers, connecting rods and pistons are different.

Cylinder bore and piston stroke are 76.0 mm (2.99 in) and 88.0 mm (3.46 in), respectively. The compression ratio is 9.8:1 for Europe and Israel or 9.9:1 for other markets.

There are three versions of GA16DE:

  • First-generation (1991-1994) This version for North-American market was equipped with NVTCS (Nissan Valve Timing Control System) on intake side and producted 110 PS (81 kW) at 6,000 rpm of horsepower and 146 Nm (14.8 kg⋅m, 110 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpm of torque.
  • Second-generation (1995-1999) for North-American market was also equipped with NVTCS, but produces 115 PS (85 kW) at 6,000 rpm and 146 Nm (14.8 kg⋅m, 110 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpm
  • European version without NVCS producted 100 PS (76 kW) at 6000 rpm and 127 Nm(13.0 kg⋅m, 94 lb·ft)at 3,600rpm

The breakdown of the engine code is as follows:

  • GA – Engine Family
  • 16 – 1.6 Liter Displacement
  • D – DOHC (Dual Overhead Camshafts)
  • E – Multi Point Fuel Injection

General information

Engine Specifications
Engine code GA16DE
Layout Four stroke, Inline-4 (Straight-4)
Fuel type Gasoline
Production 1990-1999
Displacement 1.6 L, 1,597 cm3 (97.45 cu in)
Fuel system Multi Point Fuel Injection
Power adder None
Power output 100 PS (76 kW) at 6,000 rpm
110 PS (81 kW) at 6,000 rpm
115 PS (85 kW) at 6,000 rpm
120 PS (88 kW) at 6,400 rpm
Torque output 127 Nm(13.0 kg⋅m, 94 lb·ft)at 3,600 rpm
145 Nm (14.8 kg⋅m, 110 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpm
Firing order 1-3-4-2
Dimensions (L x H x W):
Weight 330 lbs (150 kg)

Cylinder block

The GA16DE motor has a cast-iron cylinder block, cylinder bore is 76.0 mm (2.99 in) and the piston stroke is 88.0 mm (3.46 in). The pistons are each fitted with two compression rings and a single oil ring. For some markets, there was a modification with a single compression ring. The crankshaft for GA16DE supported by five main bearings. The crankshaft is the same as on the GA15DE engine.

Cylinder block
Cylinder block alloy Cast iron
Compression ratio: 9.8:1 or 9.9:1
Cylinder bore: 76.0 mm (2.992 in)
Piston stroke: 88.0 mm (3.465 in)
Number of piston rings (compression / oil): 2 / 1 (1 / 1 – for some markets)
Number of main bearings: 5
Block Height: 213.95-214.05 mm (8.4232-8.4271 in)
Cylinder inner diameter (standard): 76.000-76,010 mm (2,9921-2.9925 in)
Piston skirt diameter (standard): 75.975-75.985 mm (29911-2.9915 in)
Piston pin outer diameter: 18.989-19.001 mm (0.7476-0.7481 in)
Piston ring side clearance: Top 0.040-0.080 mm (0.0016-0.0031 in)
Second 0.030-0.070 mm (0.0012-0.0028 in)
Piston ring end gap: Top 0.20-0.35 mm (0.0079-0.0138 in)
Second 0.37-0.52 mm (0.0146-0.0205 in)
Oil 0.20-0.60 mm (0.0079-0.0236 in)
Connecting rod center distance: 140.45-140.55 mm (5.5295-5.5335 in)
Connectin rod small end inner diameter: 19.000-19.012 mm (0.7480-0.7485 in)
Connectin rod big end inner diameter: 43.000-43.013 mm (1.6929-1.6934 in)
Crankshaft journal diameter: 49.956-49.964 mm (1.9668-1.9671 in)
Crankpin diameter: 39.968-39.974 mm (1.5735-1.5738 in)
Crankshaft center distance: 43.95-44.05 mm (1.7303-1.7342 in)

Cylinder head

The engine has an aluminum cylinder head with two chain-driven overhead camshafts and sixteen valves (four per cylinder). The GA16DE has two timing chains. Intake valves are 30 mm in diameter and the exhaust valves are 24 mm for engines without VTC system or 25 mm for the version with VTC. Exhaust duration is 222° for all versions, intake duration is 214° for engines without VTC; 236° for GA16GE with VTC system for Australian market and 248° for other markets.

The GA16DE does not have hydraulic lifters, so special shims are used to adjust the valve clearance.

Cylinder head
Cylinder head alloy Aluminum
Cylinder head height: 118 mm (4.6456 in)
Valve Arrangement: DOHC, chain drive
Intake duration: 222°
Intake/Exhaust duration: 214° without VTC;
236° with VTC system for Australian market;
248° with VTC system except Australian market;
Valve head diameter: INTAKE 29.9-30.2 mm (1.177-1.189 in)
EXHAUST 23.9-24.2 mm (0.941-0.949 in) – without VTC;
24.9-25.2 mm (0.980-0.992 in) – with VTC
Valve length: INTAKE 92.00-92.5 mm (3.6220-3.6417 in)
EXHAUST 92.37-92.87 mm (3.6366-3.6563 in)
Valve stem diameter: INTAKE 5.465-5.480 mm (0.2152-0.2157 in)
EXHAUST 5.445-5.460 mm (0.2144-0.2150 in)
Cam height: INTAKE 39.380-39.570 mm (1.5504-1.5579 in) without VTC;
40.610-40.800 mm (1.5988-1.6063 in) with VTC except for Europe;
40.610-40.800 mm (1.5988-1.6063 in) with VTC for Australia;
EXHAUST 39.880-40.070 mm (1.5701-1.5776 in) without VTC;
40.056-40.246 mm (1.5770-1.5845 in) with VTC except for Europe;
39.910-40.100 mm (1.5713-1,5787 in) with VTC for Australia;
Outer camshaft journal diameter: №1 27.935-27.955 mm (1.0998-1.1006 in)
№2-5 23.935-23.955 mm (0.9423 – 0.9431 in)

Head tightening procedure and torque specs:

  • Step 1: 29.4 Nm; 3.0 kg·m; 22 ft·lb
  • Step 2: 58.8 Nm; 6.0 kg·m; 43 ft·lb
  • Step 3: Loosen all bolts completely
  • Step 4: 29.4 Nm; 3.0 kg·m; 22 ft·lb
  • Step 5: Turn main bolts 50-55° or 58.8 Nm; 6.0 kg·m; 43 ft·lb

Problems and malfunctions

The Nissan GA16DE is reliable and durable. The engine has two timing chains, their service life is about 150,000 miles of mileage (200,000-250,000 km). The valve clearance needs to be adjusted every 30,000 miles of mileage (40,000-50,000 km). The GA16DE motor life expectancy is 200,000 miles of mileage (300,000 km) or more.

Maintenance data

Valve clearance (HOT)
Intake valve 0.21-0.49 mm (0.008-0.019 in)
Exhaust valve 0.30-0.58 mm (0.012-0.023 in)
Compression pressure
Standard 9.8: 13.8 kg/cm2 (13.53 bar, 196 psi) / 350 rpm
9.9: 14 kg/cm2 (13.7 bar, 199 psi) / 350 rpm
Minimun 9.8: 11.8 kg/cm2 (11.57 bar, 168 psi) / 350 rpm
9.9: 12 kg/cm2 (11.8 bar, 171 psi) / 350 rpm
Compression differential limit between cylinders 1 kg/cm2 (0.98 bar, 14 psi) / 350 rpm
Oil system
Oil consumption , L/1000 km (qt. per miles) up to 0.5 (1 qt. per 1200 miles)
Recommended engine oil 5W-30
Oil type API SE, SF, SG or SH
Engine oil capacity (Refill capacity) With filter change 3.2 l (3.4 qt.)
Without filter change 2.8 l (3.0 qt.)
Oil change interval, km (miles) 15,000 (9,000)
Oil Pressure, kPa (bar, kg/cm 2, psi) Idle speed: More than 59 (0.59, 0.6, 9)
2,000 rpm: More than 245 (2.45, 2.5, 36)
6,000 rpm: More than 422 (4.22, 4.3, 61)
Ignition system
Spark plug For Europe and Israel:
Standard: BKR5E
Cold: BKR6E, BKR7E
Except Europe and Israel:
Standard: BKR5E-11
Cold: BKR6E-11, BKR7E-11
Spark plug gap For Europe and Israel:
0.8 – 0.9 mm (0.031 – 0.035 in)
Except Europe and Israel:
1.0 – 1.1 mm (0.039 – 0.043 in)
Spark plug torque 19.6-29.4 Nm (2.00-3.00 kg⋅m, 14.3-21.7 lb·ft)

Valve clearance adjustment data

Calculate the thickness of new adjusting shim so valve clearance comes within specified values.

R = Thickness of removed shim
N = Thickness of new shim
M = Measured valve clearance

N = R + [M – 0.37 mm (0.0146 in)]
N = R + [M – 0.40 mm (0.0157 in)]

Shims are available in 50 sizes from 2.00 mm (0.0787 in) to 2.98 mm (0.1173 in), in steps of 0.02 mm (0.0008 in).

Example (intake valve):
R = 2.10 mm
M = 0.52 mm
N = 2.10 + (0.52 – 0.37) = 2.25 mm, so we need a shim with code 225 or TS225.

For adjusting For checking
Hot Cold* Hot
Intake 0.32-0.40 mm (0.013-0.016 in) 0.25-0.33 mm (0.010-0.013 in) 0.21-0.49 mm (0.008-0.019 in)
Exhaust 0.37-0.45 mm (0.015-0.018 in) 0.32-0.40 mm (0.013-0.016 in) 0.30-0.58 mm (0.012-0.023 in)

*: At a temperature of approximately 20°C (68°F)

Whenever valve clearances are adjusted to cold specifications, check that the clearances satisfy hot specifications and adjust again if necessary.

Vehicle applications

Model Years Produced
Nissan NX1600 B13 1993-1996
Nissan Sentra B13 1991-1994
Nissan 100NX B13 1994-1995 (UK)
Nissan Presea R10 1991-1994
Nissan Sentra B14 1995-1999
Nissan 200SX B14 1995-1999
Nissan Almera N15 1995-1999
Nissan Pulsar N14,N15 1990-1999
Nissan Primera P10,P11 1993-1999
Nissan Sunny Traveller N14 1992-1995
Nissan Wingroad Y10 1992-1995
Nissan Exalta (Philippines) 1999-2001
Nissan Vanette Serena / Serena C23 1991-1996
Nissan Lucino N15 1995-2000
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  1. Hi,
    My GA16de has been giving me issues for a while now. I want to get a new engine, there are no GA16de engines available in or market. What are the alternative replacements for this engines with minimal modifications?

    Your avdvice would be of great help.


    • My 1993 Nissan Sentra has just passed 402,000 km.
      Key items:
      1. Change the engine oil & filter every 6000 km as per manual. Suggest using synthetic oil.
      (It’s easy to do oil changes yourself for this car yourself in driveway to save costs).
      2. Change Automatic Transmission Fluid [ATF], (or gear oil), every 48,000 km. Use “DEXRON 4” (or better) SYNTHETIC Automatic Transmission oil, rather than original “DEXRON 2”.
      USE NISSAN ORIGINAL (OEM – Original Equipment Manufacturer) Automatic Transmission Fluid.
      Also: DO NOT “POWER FLUSH” THE AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION, when changing the Automatic Transmission Fluid. (“Power Flushes” have been known to “kill” Automatic Transmissions).
      3. “Common sense”: Change all other fluids as stated in manual.
      E.g.: Anti-freeze.
      4. If you plan to drive the car a VERY long time (or plan), consider changing the Power Steering fluid “occasionally”, if you see it is “cloudy” or dark in colour. USE NISSAN OEM POWER STEERING FLUID.
      5. Consider getting some form of “rust proofing oil” applied to under carriage, to slow down rusting.
      6. If you drive the car in countries that use salt for winter roads, wash/rinse the car regularly (at least monthly), to slow down rusting.
      KEY ITEMS: Rinse the under carriage, WHEEL WELLS and areas along where the door frames and lower body panels meet the lower frame. (These areas are now starting to rust out my 1993 Sentra…I wish I had known this one earlier).
      7. Considering WAXING the car yearly. Go to a professional auto detailing place, if it’s too much effort to do yourself. (The body and paint finish has lasted remarkably well over almost 30 years. Had I waxed the car more regularly, it would be looking even better).
      8. Grease the GAS TANK DOOR LOCK (hinges, key hole & inside lock mechanism), as well as the door hinges at least once a year.
      9. Consider using a “fairly powerful” Fuel Injector Cleaner about 2x per year (every 6 months). This does improve gas mileage and performance. (Find “Motul” or “Performa 3 fuel system service” products have worked well on my Sentra).
      10. The original struts have now started to “go soft”, after 29 years. (Still drive-able, but “you feel the bumps”).
      11. As time continues to go on, parts are becoming harder to get.
      12. Misc notes (items that have failed over the years in my Sentra…which was originally owned for first 20 years by my mother):
      – Power Steering pump failed. (I had to rebuild the original pump, as parts no longer available)
      – Still original TIMING CHAIN at +400,000 km. (I learned it is “recommended” this item be replaced between 200,000 km ~ 250,000 km). NOTE: IF Timing Chain “snaps”, it will likely damage the engine. As old as the car is (and despite the high KMs), I’m looking to get this item replaced SOON. (I have the replacement “timing chain kit”, but it takes about 10 ~ 12 hours of labour to replace the timing chain).
      – The original Gas Tank itself rusted out at about 24 years. (This is normal for cars this old).
      – I don’t suggest using any form of “Engine Oil flush” treatment on the car.
      (I can’t confirm it, but I think this may have “eaten away” at an engine gasket and caused a small oil leak in my Sentra).
      1993 Nissan Sentra has been an amazingly reliable car. (Only “failed” to start 3 times in its history… Once when the original starter motor ‘died’ at about 25 years, and twice when the battery needed to be replaced. Even when Power Steering pump “quit”, I was able to drive it to my mechanics shop). It’s a nice car to drive, and even to this day, it still has a “nimble” feel.
      Trying to keep my Sentra on the road. Just to provide a number, “400,000 km” is doable, if you take care of it and are prepared to a few $$$’s in upkeep. (On the whole, a cheap car to own).

      • Also, “basic tune-up” items:
        – Change spark plugs “regularly”. Platinum plugs for this car are low cost.
        – Change air filter regularly. (Air filters are cheap).
        – Consider changing the “ignition rotor”, distributor cap and ignition wires, “every 5 years”.
        – Change the fuel filter regularly. (I was surprised at how much of a difference doing this bit of maintenance after only 2 years, made a difference in gas mileage and performance. Also, changing the fuel filter regularly helps keep the fuel pump from overworking).

        • P.S.: I have pushed Synthetic engine oil changes to 8000 km, however I don’t recommend this, even if oil says it can handle it. (Engine starts to run noticeable rough, and gas mileage takes a small hit).
          7000 KM would be my suggested limit for pushing any Synthetic Oil.
          (I’ve used Castrol Edge – 5W30 (Synthetic) oil for Sentra…mainly because it the “cheapest” brand name Synthetic oil I can get at a discount. Note: Almost ANY brand of modern day SYNTHETIC oil, is superior to what was sold 30 years ago).

  3. Is there a certain code for a GA16de oem fuel injector? Found an injector on ebay (code below) but i don’t have any idea if it fits my ga16de.

    “4pcs Fuel Injector Nozzle For Nissan 200SX NX 16600-57Y01 1660057Y01 A46-f13 16600 57Y01 16600-57Y00 1660057Y00”

  4. hey guys i have a n14 puslar with the ga16de engine and i have a leak with one of my hose. i can only find n15 ga16de hoses for sale. will these work with the n14 ga16de engine?

  5. Please someone help me… I have a 1994 Nissan B14 1.6i -16V petrol GA16DE /manual car. Recently car was repaired by a small time mechanic, after two months the engine started giving problems, only then I came to know that my Throttle body was changed to another and chances are ECU card may have changed with it. Too late to go back and complain. I do not have part numbers to this, also because it is 1.6i engine unable to find these engines in our local market. Can someone help me to find/ or let me know the ECU card and Throttle body availability and also part numbers or some other models that can fit. I am in Sri Lanka Thank you

  6. Hola Buenas Tengo un nissan nx100. El tema es quelo compre y no viene el engranaje vtc puesto. Es igual al de la foto con VTC. Alguien puede indicarme donde conseguirlo y si lo pongo funcionara el lugar lo tiene para instalarlo.

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