Nissan GA16DS

Nissan GA16DSThe Nissan GA16DS is a 1.6 liter (1,597 cc, 97.45 cu in) carbureted straight-four 4-stroke gasoline engine from Nissan GA-family.

The Nissan GA16DS engine has a cast-iron block and aluminum alloy cylinder head and carburetor. Some models were equipped with a catalyst and used the electronically controlled carburetor.

Cylinder bore and piston stroke are 76.0 mm (2.99 in) and 88.0 mm (3.46 in), respectively. Compression ratio rating is 9.5:1 or 9.8:1. It produced 90 PS (66 kW; 88 HP) or 95 PS (70 kW; 94 HP) at 6,000 rpm of horsepower and 132 Nm (13.5 kg⋅m, 97.3 lb·ft) or 133 Nm (13.6 kg⋅m, 98 lb·ft) at 4,000 rpm of torque.

The breakdown of the engine code is as follows:

  • GA – Engine Family
  • 16 – 1.6 Liter Displacement
  • D – DOHC (Dual Overhead Camshafts)
  • S – Carburetor

General information

Engine Specifications
Engine codeGA16DS
LayoutFour stroke, Inline-4 (Straight-4)
Fuel typeGasoline
Production1990-1997
Displacement1.6 L, 1,597 cm3 (97.45 cu in)
Fuel systemCarburetor
Power adderNone
Power output 90 PS (66 kW; 88 HP) at 6,000 rpm
95 PS (70 kW; 94 HP) at 6,000 rpm
Torque output 132 Nm (13.5 kg⋅m, 97.3 lb·ft) at 3,600 rpm
133 Nm (13.6 kg⋅m, 98.0 lb·ft) at 4,400 rpm
Firing order1-3-4-2
Dimensions (L x H x W):
Weight330 lbs (150 kg)

Cylinder block

The GA16DS motor has a cast-iron cylinder block, cylinder bore is 76.0 mm (2.99 in) and piston stroke is 88.0 mm (3.46 in). The pistons are each fitted with two compression rings and a single oil ring. The crankshaft for GA16DS supported by five main bearings.

Cylinder block
Cylinder block alloyCast iron
Compression ratio:9.5:1 or 9.8:1
Cylinder bore:76.0 mm (2.992 in)
Piston stroke:88.0 mm (3.465 in)
Number of piston rings (compression / oil):2 / 1 (1 / 1 – for some markets)
Number of main bearings:5
Block Height:213.95-214.05 mm (8.4232-8.4271 in)
Cylinder inner diameter (standard):76.000-76,010 mm (2,9921-2.9925 in)
Piston skirt diameter (standard):75.975-75.985 mm (29911-2.9915 in)
Piston pin outer diameter:18.989-19.001 mm (0.7476-0.7481 in)
Piston ring side clearance:Top0.040-0.080 mm (0.0016-0.0031 in)
Second0.030-0.070 mm (0.0012-0.0028 in)
Piston ring end gap:Top0.20-0.35 mm (0.0079-0.0138 in)
Second0.37-0.52 mm (0.0146-0.0205 in)
Oil0.20-0.60 mm (0.0079-0.0236 in)
Connecting rod center distance:140.45-140.55 mm (5.5295-5.5335 in)
Connectin rod small end inner diameter:19.000-19.012 mm (0.7480-0.7485 in)
Connectin rod big end inner diameter:43.000-43.013 mm (1.6929-1.6934 in)
Crankshaft journal diameter:49.956-49.964 mm (1.9668-1.9671 in)
Crankpin diameter:39.968-39.974 mm (1.5735-1.5738 in)
Crankshaft center distance:43.95-44.05 mm (1.7303-1.7342 in)

Cylinder head

The engine has an aluminum cylinder head with two chain-driven overhead camshafts and sixteen valves (four per cylinder). The GA16DS has two timing chains. Intake valves are 30 mm in diameter and the exhaust valves are 24 mm. Exhaust duration is 222° intake duration is 222&deg.

The GA16DS does not have hydraulic lifters, so special shims are used to adjust the valve clearance.

Cylinder head
Cylinder head alloyAluminum
Cylinder head height:118 mm (4.6456 in)
Valve Arrangement:DOHC, chain drive
Intake duration:222°
Intake/Exhaust duration:222°
Valve head diameter:INTAKE29.9-30.2 mm (1.177-1.189 in)
EXHAUST24.9-25.2 mm (0.980-0.992 in)
Valve length:INTAKE92.00-92.5 mm (3.6220-3.6417 in)
EXHAUST92.37-92.87 mm (3.6366-3.6563 in)
Valve stem diameter:INTAKE5.465-5.480 mm (0.2152-0.2157 in)
EXHAUST5.445-5.460 mm (0.2144-0.2150 in)
Cam height:INTAKE39.880-40.070 mm (1.5701-1.5776 in)
EXHAUST39.880-40.070 mm (1.5701-1.5776 in)
Outer camshaft journal diameter:№127.935-27.955 mm (1.0998-1.1006 in)
№2-523.935-23.955 mm (0.9423 – 0.9431 in)

Head tightening procedure and torque specs:

  • Step 1: 29.4 Nm; 3.0 kg·m; 22 ft·lb
  • Step 2: 58.8 Nm; 6.0 kg·m; 43 ft·lb
  • Step 3: Loosen all bolts completely
  • Step 4: 29.4 Nm; 3.0 kg·m; 22 ft·lb
  • Step 5: Turn main bolts 50-55° or 58.8 Nm; 6.0 kg·m; 43 ft·lb

Maintenance data

Valve clearance (HOT)
Intake valve0.21-0.49 mm (0.008-0.019 in)
Exhaust valve0.30-0.58 mm (0.012-0.023 in)
Compression pressure
Standard13.8 kg/cm2 (13.53 bar, 196 psi) / 350 rpm
Minimun12 kg/cm2 (11.8 bar, 171 psi) / 350 rpm
Compression differential limit between cylinders1 kg/cm2 (0.98 bar, 14 psi) / 350 rpm
Oil system
Oil consumption , L/1000 km (qt. per miles)up to 0.5 (1 qt. per 1200 miles)
Recommended engine oil 5W-30
5W-40
10W-30
10W-40
Oil type APISE, SF, SG or SH
Engine oil capacity (Refill capacity) With filter change 3.2 l (3.4 qt.)
Without filter change 2.8 l (3.0 qt.)
Oil change interval, km (miles)15,000 (9,000)
Oil Pressure, kPa (bar, kg/cm 2, psi) Idle speed: More than 59 (0.59, 0.6, 9)
2,000 rpm: More than 245 (2.45, 2.5, 36)
6,000 rpm: More than 422 (4.22, 4.3, 61)
Ignition system
Spark plug Standard: BKR6E
Spark plug gap0.8-0.9 mm (0.031-0.035 in)
Spark plug torque19.6-29.4 Nm (2.00-3.00 kg⋅m, 14.3-21.7 lb·ft)

Valve clearance adjustment data

Calculate the thickness of new adjusting shim so valve clearance comes within specified values.

R = Thickness of removed shim
N = Thickness of new shim
M = Measured valve clearance

Intake:
N = R + [M – 0.37 mm (0.0146 in)]
Exhaust:
N = R + [M – 0.40 mm (0.0157 in)]

Shims are available in 50 sizes from 2.00 mm (0.0787 in) to 2.98 mm (0.1173 in), in steps of 0.02 mm (0.0008 in).

Example (intake valve):
R = 2.10 mm
M = 0.52 mm
N = 2.10 + (0.52 – 0.37) = 2.25 mm, so we need a shim with code 225 or TS225.

For adjustingFor checking
HotCold*Hot
Intake0.32 – 0.40 (0.013 – 0.016)0.25 – 0.33 (0.010 – 0.013)0.21 – 0.49 (0.008 – 0.019)
Exhaust0.37 – 0.45 (0.015 – 0.018)0.32 – 0.40 (0.013 – 0.016)0.30 – 0.58 (0.012 – 0.023)

*: At a temperature of approximately 20°C (68°F)

Whenever valve clearances are adjusted to cold specifications, check that the clearances satisfy hot specifications and adjust again if necessary.

Vehicle applications

ModelYears Produced
Nissan Primera P101990-1993
Nissan Sunny N141990-1993
Nissan 100NX B131990-1993
Nissan Avenir1990-1997
Nissan Bluebird U131991-1995
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