Subaru FA20D

Subaru FA20DThe Subaru FA20D / Toyota 4U-GSE is a 2.0 L (1,998 cc, 121.9 cu·in) horizontally-opposed (“flat-four” or “boxer”) four-stroke natural aspirated gasoline engine from the Subaru FA-family. This engine is identified by a Toyota engine family code as the 4U-GSE, which is installed in the Toyota 86 and the Scion FR-S. The FA20D was manufactured at Subaru’s engine plant in Ota, Gunma, Japan.

The Subaru FA20D / Toyota 4U-GSE engine features an aluminum cylinder block and aluminum cylinder heads with dual overhead camshafts (DOHC) and four valves per cylinder (16 in total). Compression ratio rating is 12.5:1. The engine has an 86.0 mm (3.39 in) of the cylinder bore and 86.0 mm (3.39 in) of the piston stroke. This engine is equipped with “Dual Active Valve Control System” (D-AVCS) or Toyota’s “Dual Variable Valve Timing-intelligent” (Dual VVT-i), “Electronic Throttle Control System-intelligent” (ETCS-i), “Direct Injection 4-stroke Gasoline Engine Superior Version Sequential Multiport Fuel Injection” (D-4S SFI), Toyota’s “Direct Ignition System” (DIS).

The engine produced 200 PS (147 kW; 197 HP) at 7,000 rpm or 208 PS (153 kW; 205 HP) at 7,000 rpm of maximum horsepower and 205 N·m (20.9 kg·m, 151 ft·lb) at 6,400 rpm or 212 N·m (21.6 kg·m, 156 ft·lb) at 6,400 rpm of peak torque.

The breakdown of the engine code is as follows:

For Subaru FA20D

  • FA – Engine family
  • 20 – Displacement in deciliters
  • D – Multi Point Fuel Injection

For Toyota 4U-GSE

  • 4 – 4 generation engine
  • U – Engine family
  • G – Performance wide-angle DOHC
  • S – Gasoline direct injection system (D-4)
  • E – Multi Point Fuel Injection

General information

Engine Specifications
Engine codeSubaru FA20D / Toyota 4U-GSE
LayoutFour stroke, flat-four (boxer)
Fuel typeGasoline (petrol)
Displacement2.0 L, 1,998 cm3 (121.9 cu-in)
Fuel systemDirect Injection (D-4S SFI)
Power adderNone
Power output 200 PS (147 kW; 197 HP) at 7,000 rpm
208 PS (153 kW; 205 HP) at 7,000 rpm
Torque output 205 N·m (20.9 kg·m, 151 ft·lb) at 6,400 rpm
212 N·m (21.6 kg·m, 156 ft·lb) at 6,400 rpm
Firing order1-3-2-4
Dimensions (L x W x H):

Cylinder block

The Subaru FA20D / Toyota 4U-GSE engine had an aluminum alloy cylinder block with 86.0 mm (3.39 in) bores and an 86.0 mm (3.39 in) stroke, compression ratio rating is 12.5:1. The engine is equipped with steel connecting rods, aluminum alloy pistons with two compression and single oil control ring.

Cylinder block
Cylinder block alloyAluminum
Compression ratio:12.5:1
Cylinder bore:86.0 mm (3.39 in)
Piston stroke:86.0 mm (3.39 in)
Number of piston rings (compression / oil):2 / 1
Number of main bearings:5
Cylinder inner diameter (standard):86.005-86.015 mm (3.386-3.3864 in)
Piston skirt diameter (standard):85.985-85.995 mm (3.3852-3.3856 in)
Piston pin outer diameter:
Piston ring side clearance:Top0.030-0.080 mm (0.0012-0.0031 in)
Second0.030-0.070 mm (0.0012-0.0028 in)
Piston ring end gap:Top0.250-0.300 mm (0.0098-0.0118 in)
Second0.600-0.700 mm (0.0236-0.0276 in)
Oil0.100-0.350 mm (0.0039-0.0138 in)
Crankshaft journal diameter:67.985-68.009 mm (2.6766-2.6775 in)
Crankpin diameter:49.976-50.000 mm (1.9676-1.9685 in)

Cylinder block sub-assembly tightening procedure and torque specs:

  • Step 1: 35 Nm, 3.57 kg·m; 26 ft·lb)
  • Step 2: Loosen 180°
  • Step 3: 35 Nm, 3.57 kg·m; 26 ft·lb)
  • Step 4: Loosen 180°
  • Step 5: 17 Nm, 1.73 kg·m; 13 ft·lb)
  • Step 6: Turn 60°

After securing bearing cap bolts, make sure crankshaft turns smoothly by hand.

Connecting rod bearing bolts

  • Step 1: 10 Nm, 1.02 kg·m; 7 ft·lb)
  • Step 2: 25 Nm, 2.55 kg·m; 18 ft·lb)
  • Step 3: Turn 92.5°

Cylinder head

The cylinder head is made of aluminum alloy which gives it good cooling efficiency. The engine has dual overhead camshafts, that are driven by a timing chain and four valves per cylinder (16 valves in total). The FA20 engine has variable intake and exhaust valve timing, known as Subaru’s “Dual Active Valve Control System” (D-AVCS) or Toyota’s “Dual Variable Valve Timing-intelligent” (Dual VVT-i). The hydraulic lash adjuster – located at the fulcrum of the roller rocker arm – consisted primarily of a plunger, plunger spring, check ball and check ball spring.

Cylinder head
Cylinder head alloy:Aluminum
Valve Arrangement:DOHC, chain drive
Valves:16 (4 valves per cylinder)
Valve timing:INTAKE252°
Valve length:INTAKE103.3 mm (4.0669 in)
EXHAUST95.1 mm (3.7441 in)
Valve stem diameter:INTAKE5.455-5.470 mm (0.2148-0.2154 in)
EXHAUST5.445-5.460 mm (0.2144-0.215 in)
Valve spring free length:41.06 mm (1.6165 in)
Camshaft cam height:INTAKE40.820-40.920 mm (1.6071-1.611 in)
EXHAUST40.720-40.820 mm (1.6031-1.6071 in)
Outer camshaft journal diameter:25.946-25.963 mm (1.0215-1.0222 in)

Head tightening procedure and torque specs:

  • Step 1: 20 Nm, 2.04 kg·m; 15 ft·lb)
  • Step 2: 100 Nm, 10.2 kg·m; 74 ft·lb)
  • Step 3: Loosen 360°
  • Step 4: 20 Nm, 2.04 kg·m; 15 ft·lb)
  • Step 5: 42 Nm, 4.3 kg·m; 31 ft·lb)
  • Step 6: Turn 100°
  • Step 7: Turn 100° (2 central bolts), turn 50° (except 2 central bolts)

Maintenance data

Valve clearance
Intake valve0.10-0.16 mm (0.0039-0.0063 in)
Exhaust valve0.21-0.27 mm (0.0083-0.0106 in)
Compression pressure
Standard17.8 kg/cm2 (1,750 kPa, 254 psi)
Minimun11.7 kg/cm2 (1,150 kPa, 167 psi)
Compression differential limit between cylinders2.0 kg/cm2 (200 kPa, 29 psi)
Oil system
Recommended engine oilSAE 0W-20, 5W-30
Oil type APISL, SM, SN
Engine oil capacity (Refill capacity) With filter change: 5.4 l (5.7 US qts, 4.8 Imp. qts)
Without filter change: 5.2 l (5.5 US qts, 4.6 Imp. qts)
Oil presure Idle: 50 kPa (0.5 kg/cm2 , 7.3 psi)
AT 6,000 rpm: 500 kPa (5.1 kg/cm2 , 73 psi)
Ignition system
Spark plugDENSO: ZXE27HBR8
Spark plug gap0.8 mm (0.0315 in)
Spark plug gap17 N·m (1.7 kg·m, 12.5 ft·lb)

Vehicle applications

ModelYears Produced
Subaru BRZ2012-
Toyota GT862012-
Scion FR-S2012-
Author: Sergei Wers
About: Co-founder and CEO of a multi-brand auto repair shop (engine repair, chassis repair, body repair and painting) for over 15 years. I have been developing internet sites with technical specifications for more than seven years.

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