The Nissan HR16DE is a 1.6 l (1,598 cc) straight-four 4-stroke natural aspirated gasoline engine from Nissan HR-family. The HR16DE engine was co-developed with Renault in 2005. In Renault production line HR16DE is called H4M. This engine is a substitution of early Renault K4M.
The HR16DE (H4M) features a lightweight aluminum block with a fully balanced five-bearings crankshaft and aluminum head with two camshafts and four valves per cylinder. Compression ratio rating is 9.5:1 to 11.2:1 (depends on the year and car model). Cylinder bore and piston stroke are 78.0 mm (3.071 in) and 83.6 mm (3.291 in), respectively. The HR16DE (H4M) engine has electronic throttle and two fuel injectors per cylinder (after 2006).
It produces 110 to 119 PS (81 to 88 kW; 108 to 117 hp) of horsepower and 142-158 Nm (105-116 lb·ft) of torque at 4,000 rpm. In 2006 the HR16DE engine was upgraded.
The breakdown of the engine code is as follows:
- HR – Engine Family
- 16 – 1.6 Liter Displacement
- D – DOHC (Dual Overhead Camshafts)
- E – Multi Point Fuel Injection
|Engine code||Nissan HR16DE / Renault H4M|
|Layout||Four stroke, Inline-4 (Straight-4)|
|Fuel type||Gasoline (petrol)|
|Displacement||1.6 L, 1,598 cc (97.51 cu in)|
|Fuel system||Multi Point Fuel Injection|
|Power output||110 to 119 PS (81 to 88 kW; 108 to 117 hp) at 5,600-6.000 rpm|
|Torque output||142 to 158 Nm (105 to 116 lb·ft) to at 4,000 rpm|
|Dimensions (L x W x H):||–|
The HR16DE-H4M has an aluminum cylinder block with five bearing support system. Cylinders in the Nissan HR16DE engines are fitted at an offset to minimize friction arising from the angle of the connecting rod as a piston descends into the cylinder. The resulting smoother reciprocating motion of the pistons contributes to high power output and high torque as well as fuel economy. Also, the structure is designed so that the piston remains in the upper part of the cylinder longer than in a conventional engine (piston velocity slows down). This permits more efficient use of combustion energy and effectively improves thermal efficiency.
The engine has cracking-processed connecting rods. These integrally cast con rods offer lighter weight than conventional con rods, which are constructed in two parts, separated at the eye where they join the crankshaft. The cracking processed conrod is manufactured in one piece, then the lower connecting rod eye is broken in two (the cracking process) and, finally, the two parts are rejoined after mounting. Mating of the uneven surfaces created by the cracking process results in a very precise joint. The engine has two compression and single oil control ring.
The crankshaft and camshaft journals are finished with a polishing tape to produce a mirror-like finish. The result is a thorough reduction in friction on these bearing surfaces of key engine components.
|Cylinder block (after 2006)|
|Cylinder block alloy||Aluminium|
|Compression ratio:||9.5:1 to 11.2:1 (Depends on vehicle model)|
|Cylinder bore:||78.0 mm (3.071 in)|
|Piston stroke:||83.6 mm (3.291 in)|
|Number of piston rings (compression / oil):||2 / 1|
|Number of main bearings:||5|
|Cylinder inner diameter (standard):||78.000-78.015 mm (3.0709-3.0715 in)|
|Piston skirt diameter (standard):||77.965-77.980 mm (3.0695-3.0701 in)|
|Piston pin outer diameter:||18.996-19.002 mm (0.7479-0.7481 in)|
|Piston ring side clearance:||Top||0.040-0.080 mm (0.0016-0.0031 in)|
|Second||0.030-0.070 mm (0.0012-0.0028 in)|
|Oil||0.045-0.125 mm (0.0018-0.0049 in)|
|Piston ring end gap:||Top||0.20-0.30 mm (0.0079-0.0118 in)|
|Second||0.35-0.50 mm (0.0138-0.0197 in)|
|Oil||0.20-0.60 mm (0.0079-0.0236 in)|
|Crankshaft journal diameter:||47.979-47.978 mm (1.8889-1.8889 in)|
|Crankpin diameter:||39.971-39.970 mm (1.5737-1.5736 in)|
The cylinder head is made of strong, light aluminum alloy which gives it good cooling efficiency. Each camshaft is supported by five bearings. The HR16DE has variable valve timing system (C-VTC) on the intake camshaft. C-VTC enables variable valve timing in response to engine rpm and throttle opening. Enhanced control and reduced system friction improve response and optimize torque characteristics.
Intake valves are 31 mm in diameter, intake duration is 228°, and the exhaust valves are 25 mm, exhaust duration is 208°. The HR16DE does not have hydraulic lifters, so special valve lifters are used to adjust the valve clearance.
The engine has a plastic intake manifold with an integrated tumble control valve. The HR16DE is equipped with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) system. This system returns a portion of the exhaust gas to the intake side to reduce fuel consumption and minimize emission.
The HR16DE-H4M engine has a front air intake and rear exhaust system layout. The system has long intake runners effective in promoting ample torque at low and mid-range engine speeds, and also achieves smooth exhaust flow. The straight exhaust system reduces flow-resistance.
|Cylinder head (after 2006)|
|Valve Arrangement:||DOHC, chain drive|
|Cylinder head height:||125.0 mm (4.92 in)|
|Valves:||16 (4 valves per cylinder)|
|Valve head diameter:||INTAKE||31.0 – 31.3 mm (1.220 – 1.232 in)|
|EXHAUST||25.3 – 25.6 mm (0.996 – 1.008 in)|
|Valve length:||INTAKE||101.65 mm (4.002 in)|
|EXHAUST||102.46 mm (4.034 in)|
|Valve stem diameter:||INTAKE||4.965 – 4.980 mm (0.1955 – 0.1961 in)|
|EXHAUST||4.955 – 4.970 mm (0.1951 – 0.1957 in)|
|Valve spring free length:||42.26 mm (1.6638 in)|
|Camshaft cam height:||INTAKE||41.705 – 41.895 mm (1.6419 – 1.6494 in)|
|EXHAUST||40.175 – 40.365 mm (1.5817 – 1.5892 in)|
|Outer camshaft journal diameter:||№1||27.935 – 27.955 mm (1.0998 – 1.1006 in)|
|№2, 3, 4, 5||24.950 – 24.970 mm (0.9823 – 0.9831 in)|
Head tightening procedure and torque specs:
- Step 1: 40 Nm; 4.1 kg·m; 30 ft·lb
- Step 2: Turn all bolts 60°
- Step 3: Loosen all bolts completely
- Step 4: 40 Nm; 4.1 kg·m; 30 ft·lb
- Step 5: Turn all bolts 75°
- Step 6: Turn all bolts another 75°
Camshaft sprocket bolt
- 78.4 Nm; 8.0 kg·m; 58 ft-lb
Problems and malfunctions
The Nissan HR16DE is reliable and durable. This engine sometimes has problems with the alternator belt (whistle noise). It needs to tighten or replace the old belt with a new one. Sometimes the engine may shut off. The problem is in the relay of the ignition unit. Nissan officially recalled a batch of cars with that issue. This problem fixes by replacing of ignition unit complete.
In addition, HR16DE-H4M engine is difficult to start in the cold weather (below 5 F (-15 C)). To make it easier, you can replace the spark plugs and start with the open throttle, it may improve the situation.
The engine has a timing chain, their service life is about 150,000 miles of mileage (200,000-250,000 km). The valve clearance needs to be adjusted every 60,000 miles of mileage (90,000 km). The HR16DE motor life expectancy is 200,000 miles of mileage (300,000 km) or more.
|Valve clearance (HOT)|
|Intake valve||0.304 – 0.416 mm (0.012 – 0.016 in)|
|Exhaust valve||0.308 – 0.432 mm (0.012 – 0.017 in)|
|Standard||15.5 kg/cm2 (151 bar, 219 psi) / 200 rpm|
|Minimun||12.9 kg/cm2 (12.65 bar, 183 psi) / 200 rpm|
|Compression differential limit between cylinders||0.06 kg/cm2 (0.06 bar, 0.9 psi) / 200 rpm|
|Oil consumption , L/1000 km (qt. per miles)||up to 0.5 (1 qt. per 1200 miles)|
|Recommended engine oil||5W-30|
|Oil type API||–|
|Engine oil capacity (Refill capacity)||3.0-4.5 l|
|Oil change interval, km (miles)||5,000-10,000 (3,000-6,000)|
|Oil Pressure, kPa (bar, kg/cm 2, psi)||
Idle speed: More than 60 (0.6, 0.61, 9)
2,000 rpm: More than 270 (2.7, 2.8, 39)
|Spark plug||DENSO: FXE20HE-11|
|Spark plug gap||1.1 mm (0.043 in)|
Valve clearance adjustment data
Calculate the thickness of new adjusting valve lifter so valve clearance comes within specified values.
R = Thickness of removed valve lifter
N = Thickness of new valve lifter
M = Measured valve clearance
N = R + [M – 0.30 mm (0.012 in)]
N = R + [M – 0.33 mm (0.013 in)]
Valve lifters are available in 26 sizes range from 3.00 mm (0.1181 in) to 3.50 mm (0.1378 in), in steps of 0.02 mm (0.0008 in).
Example (intake valve):
R = 3.10 mm
M = 0.52 mm
N = 3.10 + (0.52 – 0.30) = 3.32 mm, so we need a valve lifter with identification mark 332.
|Intake||0.26 – 0.34 mm (0.010 – 0.013 in)||0.304 – 0.416 mm (0.012 – 0.016 in)|
|Exhaust||0.29 – 0.37 mm (0.011 – 0.015 in)||0.308 – 0.432 mm (0.012 – 0.017 in)|
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